19th century Inventions
Hello, in this essay you will learn about some of the 19th century inventions as it says it in the title of the essay. The first topic will be on trains, the next will be on steam powered ships, planes, the gold rush in California, American Civil War, War of 1812 and Nukes. You may learn a thing or two in this essay and if you like it, then please hit the like button.
America has an area of 3.806 million mi2, with a population of 3.18 million people. But in the 1800’s the American people only inhabited the east coast of the country. The Americans then later settled the west coast and then went on to settle the inward parts of the country. How did all of this happen? Steam trains. It took a family 6 months to 1 year to travel from the west to the east, but when the steam train came into opperation, it only took 1 week to 4 weeks to get from coast to coast.
Before trains where invented, steam boats were in business and making the best traveling source by transporting goods up and down the river. It was cheap and effective. But there was one problem, if the goods had to be transported from east to west, land was in the way, so they had to go down rivers and go up the another to get to the town. To get around this, they made canals which connected river to river. The boats soon started transporting people to places.
Before you knew it, both England and America had steam boats. Could they now make a train that was powered by steam? They did start with the rocket. The rocket was not the first train, but it was a fast one. If you look at a picture of the Rocket, you would say that is not a train, but it is, and was made in 1829. Its top speed was 28 mph which is 45 km/h. The first train ever built was called Puffing Devil made by Richard Trevithick, and completed on 21 February 1804.
More faster trains were made and could go up to 50+ mph.
When the American Civil war began, trains were very important to transport troops from all over the country to the battlefield. This made it easier and faster to get troops in and out. But if the enemy was in control of the rail road, they would win the war since they would use the opponent’s rail way and trains to win.
The railway line was all over the USA, making goods and food, fuel, and more, faster and easier to transport goods, as well as opening up the possibility of inhabiting the rest of the country. Without trains, we would probably still have not populated the USA. But thanks to trains and steam power, we moved on to electric and combustion engines to power the mode of transport.
Most of the people in the world probably don’t have a car because they are in a third world country. But those who have cars should be happy that they don’t have to walk from point A to point B.
Steam Powered Ships:
The name Titanic, means gigantic, from the greek mythology. If you are going to understand the power of steam, then you will have to find the first steam engine. But in these paragraphs, there is things on the two ships that were just cm, shorter than the Titanic.
The first steam powered ship was built and designed by John Fitch. This ship averaged 13 km/h. This ship was mostly made out of wood. The spot on where the boiler would go was made out of iron.
The Titanic was launched on the 31st of May 1911, but was only completed on the 2nd of April 1912. This ship’s sisters were the RMS Olympic and HMHS Britannic. The RMS Olympic was launched on the 20th of October, 1911 and went out of service in 1935. While the HMHS Britannic came into service on 23rd December, 1915 and sank from a explosion on 21 November 1916 near the island Kea in the Aegean Sea.
All three ships looked the same, the Titanic’s length was 269.1m, the Britannic’s length was 269.06m, and the Olympics length was 269 m. The Titanic’s tonnage was 46,328 GRT, Britannic’s tonnage was 48,158 GRT, and the Olympics tonnage was 46,439 GRT.
The Titanic could go 44km/h with all 3,547 passengers on board. The Olympic and the Britannic could only go 43km/h. All three ships were made out of Steel. All three ships cost about 7.5 Million USD to make.
The Titanic, before it hit a iceberg, was warned to look out for icebergs, and to keep on the lookout until the ship docked safely at New York harbor. The ships that radioed in, more like telegraft in, just was in that part of the sea, and that is why they warned every ship.
The night before the ship hit the iceberg, the crew were on watch, looking out for icebergs without binoculars. Things that they did wrong, was that the captain was going at full speed, which was 44km/h, and he didn’t listen to the warnings, and that the crew on the lookout didn’t use the binoculars. So when the iceberg was seen, the captain tried to swerve out of the way, instead of hitting the iceberg straight on. If they hit the iceberg straight on, all of those people could still be alive, and the ship would have had a large dent in the front.
The crew thought they had just grazed the iceberg and there was no damage, but the iceberg shaved off the heads of the rivets, and uncovered about five watertight compartments. The ship that people thought and said was unsinkable, began to go under the surface of the water. It took two hours for the Titanic to sink completely. Before the Titanic sunk, the telegrapher’s set out the S.O.S. signal, which means Save Our Souls. This signal was a new one. The Titanic also shot fleers for nearby ships to come and help them. A ship only came two hours after the Titanic was out of sight, and there was only 710 survivors, and 1514 died.
The Wright brothers known as Orville and Wilbur, built the first airplane and went on the first powered flight. Orville was a Printer/publisher, bicycle retailer/manufacturer, airplane inventor/manufacturer and pilot trainer.
Wilbur was a Editor, bicycle retailer/manufacturer, airplane inventor/ manufacturer and pilot trainer. Orville dropped out of high school after his junior year to start a printing business in 1889, having designed and built his own printing press with Wilbur’s help. Wilbur joined the print shop, and in March the brothers launched a weekly newspaper, the West Side News. Subsequent issues listed Orville as publisher and Wilbur as editor on the masthead.
Yes, I almost forgot that Orville was born on August 19, 1871 and his brother Wilbur was born on April 16, 1867. Wilbur died exactly one year and one day before the Titanic was launched at the age of 45. Orville died at the age of 76 on January 30, 1948. The first plane was made on December 17, 1903.
Their first flight was in Kitty Hawk, and was for 12 seconds, this was sent by telegram to their father but there was a miss hap, the guy who did the Morse code put down 59 seconds instead of 12 seconds. The Wright brothers made three planes.
The California Gold Rush:
Gold costs $1320 per once. This is pretty expensive.
Gold in the gold rush of California was estimated to be $12 million once – which, in today’s terms, is over $16 billion. The gold rush started at a saw mill on the American river going through North California. The gold was spotted and examined. It was said to be gold, the founder of the gold flakes told his boss. His boss told him not to tell anyone. But the word got out and soon 380,000 people flocked to the west in search for gold.
The gold was taken and at its peak was worth about $81 million annually.
It dropped down to $46 million annually.
To mine gold from rivers you need a pan and a spot on the river. Look for gravel and sand together. Grab a hand full of it and put it into your pan and wet it. After that you put some more water into your pan and swirly it around. Then you shake it side to side, move it forward and backwards in the water to get some of the dirt out. You repeat the process.
The American Civil War:
If you have not heard about the civil war, then you will find it interesting to know that 675,000 – 900,000 people were killed in that war.
The 11th battle was called “First Battle of Bull Run”, also know as “First Manassas”, which happened on July 21, 1861. Just to let you know, it was the Confederate States of Ameriaca (CSA) that fought against the USA. On the US side, they had 2,896 casualties and the CSA ended up with 1,982 casualties.
Another tip is that the CSA was once apart of the US. The strength of the armies in this battle was 18,000 each. In this battle the Confederate States won a victory.
The battle after the First Manassas was the Battle of Wilson’s Creek, which took place on August 10, 1861. The strength of the US was over 5,430, and on the Confederate side, was more than 12,120. The casualties on the US side tallied up to 1,317 and on the Confederate side amounted up to 1,232 casualties.
The next major battle was called the Battle of Carnifex Ferry, which was a small battle that took place on September 10, 1861. Fighting for the Union was over 5,000 soldiers and for the Confederacy was over 2,000. The Union were victorious this time.
Another major battle, called the Battle of Cheat Mountain occurred on September 12-15, 1861. The Union had 3,000 soldiers and the Confederate had 5,000. Once again, the Union received victory.
The last major battle that I’d like to mention was called Battle of Ball’s Bluff. It took place on October 21, 1861. The Union had 1,720 soldiers and 1,002 casualties while the Confederate had 1,709 soldiers and 155 casualties. The Confederate won the battle.
In all there were over 8,000 battles that took place. Sometimes the Union won, and other times the Confederate won. But in all this fighting the Union was victorious.
War of 1812:
The war started because of the British. The British started to take Americans on board there ships to go to war. This was illegal and was practically kidnapping.
The States only declared war on June 1812. The first battle was a success to the Americans because they just went up to a fort and told the British in the fort to surrender. The British where out numbered 5 to 1.
The Brits went to the next fort and surrendered. The Americans took over the fort and stayed they. On April 27, 1813 the Americans took over Toronto and burned it to the ground. After that, they had a sea battle and the Americans won that as well. The Americans had smaller and more ships than the Brits had. The British weren’t trying their hardest until they beaten Napoleon at Waterloo. Even then they failed to over run America.
Battle after battle the Brits would win. The Americans won some of the battles too, but the battle of Washington the Americans lost. The Brits just walk into the city and burned down all the government buildings and ate dinner at the white house before burning that down to.
That was not the last battle. Battles still went on. Fort McHenry was the second last battle. This bombardment lasted for 25 hours nonstop, and in the morning the flag still was there and the British just left. The bombs that the British where using weight 190 lb cast iron bombs. I will post a link to the video. Over 1500 of these bombs where thrown at the fort, and it still withstood the blasts.
At the end of the battle, Francis Scot Key wrote the Star Spangled Banner which became the national anthem for the USA. But there was still one more battle that was about to happen. The Battle of New Orleans. The battle started with the British coming toward New Orleans, over 10,000 Brits to 4732 Americans. In that battle the Americans won a great victory, for the Brits ran away. The total American soldiers killed and wounded, was 333. For the British 2,459 soldiers were lost, killed, and wounded. This was the last battle of the war of 1812.
Nukes are also known as Atomic bombs. Nukes are set off with uranium that is put into a chamber. An uranium bullet will hit the chamber to make the nuke explode.
40% of the uranium is in the chamber and 60% of the uranium is the bullet. Behind the bullet is an explosive that makes the bullet fly down into the chamber. A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can produce an explosive force comparable to the detonation of more than 1.2 million tons (1.1 million tonnes) of TNT.
The American’s first bombing with nukes was over Japan. The mushroom cloud rose 18 km above the bomb. This bomb wiped out he entire city leaving nothing left. Some people survived but the people under the bomb when it went off where instantly turned into carbon. If you where under a nuke when it went off, you would not survive the heat. The flash of the nuke was so bright that the light went right through your hands and appeared to be white as snow. The Americans where targeting the military base that night. Here are the photos before and after:
This is the exact same spot, you just see how much damage the nuke did. The river did not change at all but the buildings were destroyed. The people who survived the bomb had 3rd degree burns usually on there back. When a nuke goes off and explodes it is very possible to survive the explosion and not to get radiation poisoning. Step one is when you see a flash of light in the sky, drop to the floor immediately. Step two is to stay there till the shock wave has passed, and step three is to make is to a shower and wash off all the radiation. If you want to see a video of the bombing of Japan, just post in the comments.