The past centuries the Indo-European peoples (Aryans) have spread across northern India and have begun to live in settled villages and tribal states. It is probably around this time in ancient India’s history that the four earliest castes appear in Aryan society: Brahmin’s (priests), Ksatriyas (warriors and rulers), Vaisya (the broad mass of tribesmen – farmers, craftsmen and merchants), and the descendents of conquered peoples relegated to a subservient role in society as Sudras (servants and labourers).
India was governed by many rulers, it would have a large empire in control for a few hundred years and then it would go back to indavishule rulers for another few hundred years and the back to the larger empire. India keep like that from 500 BC to 2005 AD. The country stopped switching in 1871 AD and was a British colonies until 2005 AD.
At this time also, a rich religious oral tradition is being developed, revolving around the doings of the Aryan’s pantheon of gods and goddesses. This will later form the Vedas, the most ancient scriptures of the Hindu world and one of the most important foundations for Indian civilization.
The various Aryan tribes have coalesced into sixteen major states which now cover northern India. Most of these states are ruled by kings, but some are republics, governed by oligarchies of noblemen.
In northern India the powerful dynasties which had contended for mastery, Gurjara-Pratihara and the Palas, are in decline, their power devolving to subordinate princes. Many of these style themselves Rajputs, a designation which roughly means “warrior prince”.